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北语21秋《大学英语二》在线作业答卷四

21春《大学英语二》导学材料四(第四章)

各位同窗,现在我们开端第四阶段内容的进修,在这阶段的进修中,盼望大家能当真进修课件中的相干内容,在懂得的基本上,当真复习本阶段的练习题,进修中若有不明白或不懂得的处所,可能到课程论坛里发问交换。

一、本阶段进修内容概述

1. 章节介绍

In this chapter, you will read about an economic system known as the free enterprise system. First, you study animal behavior, specifically learned behavior. First, you will read about learned behavior in an octopus and a young tiger. Then, you will read about how animals such as monkeys, apes and dolphins communicate. Finally, you will learn about the differences between innate, or genetically determined behavior, and learned behavior such as habituation, imprinting, trial and error, association, and insight. These topics will prepare you to write about a learned behavior and the process by which it was learned.

2. 本章目标

(1)言语知识:冠词

(2)言语技能:

a. 浏览:懂得标点标记、经由过程预览懂得主题、猜想生词意思、分类;

b. 写作:构造材料写描述性段落。

c. 翻译:英汉翻译中的省略。

(3)批驳头脑:利用信息。

3. 章节安排

本章包含三篇文章,每篇的主题都结合你的生活经验及进修反思,三篇文章按照由易到

难停止安排。经由过程进修三篇文章,将深刻进修“植物行动”的相干知识,还可能经由过程“词汇/语法”、“翻译”、“写作”三个模块控制并坚固浏览、头脑跟写作技能。请及时实现每个模块中的练习题,当真听教师讲解,并结合本阶段的阶段导学跟领导文章,从而帮助达成进修目标的请求。

第一篇是两个对于植物行动的小故事(章鱼跟老虎),请先带着成绩“what did the octopus learn? Why is the tiger unusual?”要特别留神文中所标注的重点词汇跟句型。第二篇是重点,文章绝对来说较长,以人类、野活泼物、囚禁的猿类跟海豚等为例,描述植物之间是怎样交换的,请带着成绩 “what are some ways that animal communicate? Can animals use language?”浏览全文,并特别留神文中所标注的重点词汇跟句型等语法知识。第三篇留作自行浏览。浏览前,请细心听教师对浏览技能跟批驳性头脑的讲解,并实现课后习题。

二、重难点讲解

翻译方法

1.以句为单位,译妥每一句

翻译总挨着原文的一句一句翻,但原文一句,不必定是译文的一句。原文漫长的复句,可能包含主句、分句、描述词组、副词组等等。所以断句是免不了的。

怎样断句,怎样组合断成的一句句,不必定的法则,不过还是有个方法,也有个原则。

方法是分清这一句里的主句、分句、以及各种词组;并认明以上各部分的从属关联。在这个基本上,把原句断成多少句,重新组合。不管原句多么波折繁复,读懂了,总分得清。比如九连环,一环扣一环,但是能套上就能解开。

原则是凸起主句,并衬托出各部分之间的从属关联。主句不牢固的地位,可在前,可在后,可在旁边,乃至也可堵截。从属的各分句、各词组都要安顿在合适的地位,使这一组重新组合的断句,读起来跟原文的那一句是同一个意思。

剖析了主句、分句、各式词组之后,重新组合的时间,译者还受原句次序的束缚。这就须要一个“冷却”的过程,摆脱这个次序。经过“冷却”,再读译文,就轻易看出不当的处所;再对比原文,就能发明成绩,予以改正。

弗成恣意增删原文,但不是逝世逝世的一字还它一字。比方原句一个主词可能领一串分句,断句后就得增加主词。原句的介词、冠词、连接词等等,按汉文语法假如可省,就不必照用。不过译者不克不及规避本人不懂得的字句,或苦于说不明白,就略过不译;也不克不及因为重组原句的时间,有些部分找不到合适的地位,就罗唆简掉落。

2.把原文的一句句连缀成章

连缀成章不只要留神重新组合的短句能否连接,还需留神上一段跟下一段能否连接,每一主句的意思能否明显等等。尤需留神的是原文第一句里的短句,不克不及混入原文第二句;原文第二句内的短句,不克不及混入原文第一句。

原文的每一句是一个单位,跟上句下句严格圈断。因为附近的短句假如相混,会走掉原文的语气跟语意。通读全部译文时,必须对比原文。假如文理不顺,只能在原文每一句的外部作文字上的调正跟妥洽。

3.洗练全文

把译成的句子连起来,即便句句通行,偶然也难免堆叠呆滞的弊病。西文语法跟汉文语法繁简各有差别。比方西文常用关联代词,汉文不必关联代词,但另有方法免除代词。试举一短例。

(一)他们都到伦敦去了;我不跟他们同到那边去,因为我头晕。

(二)他们都到伦敦去了;我头晕,没去。

译文(一)跟(二)是同样的话。从这个例子可阐明两件事:倒置一下次序,因果关联就很明显。上文曾经说过的话,下文不必反复,除非原文着意反复。

简掉落可简的字,把译文洗练得明快流畅。这是一道很过细、也很艰巨的工序。一方面得主意把一句话提炼得简洁而贴切;一方面得留心不删掉落弗成省的字。在这道工序里得留神两件事。

(1)“点烦”的过程里难免又倒置些短句。属于原文上一句的部分,跟属于原文下一句的部分,不克不及倒置,也不克不及连接为一句,因为如许轻易走掉原文的语气。

(2)不克不及因为寻求译文的利索而忽视原文的风格。假如去掉落的字过多,读来会感到迫促,掉掉落原文的沉着跟缓。假如可省的字保存过多,又会影响原文的明快。这都需译者控制得宜。

4.抉择最恰当的字

翻译同一语系的文字,常有伤害误用字面雷同而意思差其余字,所谓“靠不住的友人”(Les faux amis)。

英国某首相夫人告诉一位法国友人:“我丈夫带了好多文件开内阁集会去了。”但是她的法文却说成:“我丈夫带了好多手纸上厕所去了。”

英文跟法文的“斗室间”(cabinet)字面雷同而所指差别,是不坚固的友人;而“纸”由高低文的接洽,产生了差其余阐明。在西文文字跟汉文之间不这种伤害。

同一语系的文字邻近,找到对当的字比较轻易。汉语跟西方语系的文字相去很远,而汉文的词汇又非常丰富,假如译者不克不及控制,那些文字只陌生地躲在远处,不听使唤。

译者需储有大量词汇:通俗的、典雅的、说理的、叙说的、描述的等等,供他随便应用。译者假如词汇缺少,即便粗通西方语文,也不克不及把原文的意思,如原作那样表达出来。

5.解释

译者少不了为本国读者做注解,原版编者的解释对译者有效,对浏览译本的读者未必同样适用。差别时代、差别地区的风土习气各有差别,译者需为本国读者着想,为他们做注。试举一例。

《小癞子》里的小癞子自称“托美思河上的小癞子”。他说只因为他是在托美思河上的磨房里出生的,所以他理直气壮地是托美思河上的小癞子。“河上”的“上”字,原文是“en”,只能译“河上”或“河中”、“河里”,不克不及译作“河干”。

但是一团体怎能在河上或河里出生呢?除非在船上。这里就须要注解了。早年西班牙的磨房借用水力推磨,磨房浮系在水上的洪流中(参看《唐吉诃德》第二部第二十九章),磨房浮在水上。

6.其他

有些汉语常用的四字句如“风跟日暖”、“理直气壮”等。这类词儿因为用熟了,多少带些牢固性,利用的时间就得警惕。因为翻译西方文字的时间,每每只有一半实用,另一半改掉落又不合适,用上也不合适。

比方我国常用语是“理直气壮”,而原文倒是“理直义正”。我用了这四字又嫌僵硬,改为“符合公理公平。

由此遐想到成语的翻译。汉文跟西方成语假如只有半句类似,固然不克不及移用;即便意思完全雷同,表达的方法差别也不该移用。因为成语带有外乡风味。保持差其余说法,可能保持异国情调。

---原文来源于杨绛老师《翻译的方法》,有删减

三、本阶段综合练习

Passage1

Different countries and different races have different manners. Before entering a house in some Asian countries, it is good manners to take off your shoes. In European countries even though shoes sometimes become very muddy, this is not done. A guest in a Chinese house sometimes does not finish a drink. He leaves a little, to show that he has had enough. In a Malay house, too, a guest always leaves a little food. In England, a guest always finishes a drink to show that he enjoys it.

We should like to find out the customs of other races, so that they will not think us ill-mannered(举止粗暴). But people all over the world agree that being well-mannered really means being kind and helping others, especially those older or weaker than ourselves. If you remember this, you will not go very far wrong.

Here are some examples of the things that a well-mannered person does or does not do.

He never laughs at people when they are in trouble. He is always kind either to people or animals. When people are waiting for a bus, or in a post office he lines up to wait his turn. In the bus, he gives his seat to an older person or a lady who is standing. If he accidently bumps into(碰,撞)someone, or gets in their way, he says “Excuse me”or “I’m sorry”. He says “Please” when making a request, and “Thank you”when he receives something. He stands up when speaking to a lady or an older person, and he does not sit down until the other person is seated. He does not talk too much about himself. When eating, he does not speak with his mouth full of food.

1. According to the passage, a knowledge of the customs of other races _______.

A. is very useful

B. is unnecessary

C. is unimportant

D. does not mean much

【答案】A

2. A person with good manners thinks of ______.

A. others before himself

B. himself before others

C. no one but himself

D. others as well as himself

【答案】A

3. Which of the following is not true? A well-mannered person usually______.

A. says ‘Please’ when making a request

B. makes an apology for bumping into someone accidentally

C. sits where he is when speaking to a lady

D. tries to help those who are in trouble

【答案】C

4. If you want to be well-mannered, ______.

A. you laugh at people when they are in trouble

B. it's all right to speak with your mouth full of food

C. you should stop someone when he is talking

D. you can only speak after someone else has finished talking

【答案】D

5. As different countries have different manners ______.

A. it's good to learn to be well-mannered

B. we should try to find out the differences in the customs

C. it should not be wrong to go out of one's way to do anything

D. learning a little second language would be helpful

【答案】B

Passage2

The fourth-graders at Chicago's McCormick Elementary School don't know Chinese is supposed to be hard to learn. For most, who speak Spanish at home, it's becoming their third language. They've been heating and using Chinese words since nursery, and it's natural to give a “ni hao” when strangers enter the classroom. “It's really fun!” says Miranda Lucas, taking a break from a lesson that includes a Chinese interview with Jackie Chan. “I'm teaching my mom to speak Chinese.”

The classroom scene at McCormick is unusual, but it may soon be a common phenomenon in American schools, where Chinese is rapidly becoming the hot new language. Government officials have long wanted more focus on useful languages like Chinese, and pressure from business leaders, politicians, and parents —— has produced a quick growth in the number of programs.

  Chicago city officials make their best effort to include Chinese in their public schools. Their program has grown to include 3,000 students in 20 schools, with more schools on a waiting list. Programs have also spread to places like Los Angeles, New York City, and North Carolina. Supporters see knowledge of the Chinese language and culture as an advantage in a global economy where China is growing in importance. “This is an interesting way to begin to engage with the world's next superpower,” says Michael Levine, director of education at the Asia Society, which has started five new public high schools that offer Chinese. “Globalization has already changed the arrangements in terms of how children today are going to think about their careers, The question is when, not whether, the schools are going to adjust.”

The number of students learning Chinese is tiny compared with how many study Spanish or French. But one report shows that before-college enrollment (报名流数) nearly quadrupled between 1992 and 2002, from 6,000 to 24,000. Despite the demand, though, developing programs isn't easy. And the No. one difficulty, everyone agrees, is having enough teachers. Finding teacher “is the challenge,” says Scott McGinnis, an academic adviser for a language institute and a Chinese teacher for 15 years at the college level. “Materials or getting schools funded are easier by comparison.”

1. The best title for this passage might be_____.

A. Next Hot Language to Study: Chinese

B. Next Hot Language to Study: Spanish

C. Next Hot Language to Study: French

D. Chicago Is the Place to Learn Chinese

【答案】A

2. The most difficult thing to do is finding _____.

A. enough textbooks for the Chinese programs

B. enough money for the Chinese programs

C. enough teachers for the Chinese programs

D. enough students for the Chinese programs

【答案】C

3. We learn from the passage that_____.

A. Scott McGinnis has been a Chinese teacher for 15 years

B. Jackie Chan is a Chinese teacher at McCormick Elementary School

C. Chicago officials are required to learn Chinese

D. Scott McGinnis is good at giving his opinions on everything

【答案】A

4. The word "quadrupled" in the last paragraph is close in meaning to “multiplied by_____”.

A. three times

B. four times

C. five times

D. six times

【答案】B

最后,再次提示同窗们,知识是学给本人的哦,大家必定要保持精良的进修习气,保持每天进修半小时以上。要多看课件多看书多思考,带着成绩去进修,务必当真复习练习题。如进修中有不明白或不懂得的处所,可能到课程论坛里发问交换。

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