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1. 章节介绍

In this chapter, you will read about an economic system known as the free enterprise system. First, you will read about two successful people who own their own companies: Yvon Chouinard, owner of a company that makes equipment and clothing for outdoor activities, and Oprah Winfrey, who is a talk-show host, TV producer, and publisher. You will also learn about how the economic market works, and about the laws of supply and demand. Finally, you will read about advertising and marketing. These topics will prepare you to write a descriptive paragraph about an ad.

2. 本章目标



a. 浏览:猜想生词意思、预览、利用主题句。

b. 写作:构造材料写描述性段落。

(3) 批驳头脑:揣摸及预览。

3. 章节安排



第一篇介绍市场营销跟商界的传奇人物,Yvon Chouinard, Oprah Winfrey。Oprah是是一名脱口秀掌管人,一名电视制片人,同样也是一名出版商。第二篇是重点,文章绝对来说较长,从供给跟须要两方面探究市场怎样运转。请带着成绩 “how does the market determine the price of products?”浏览全文,并特别留神文中所标注的重点词汇跟句型等语法知识。第三篇留作自行浏览。浏览前,请细心听教师对浏览技能跟批驳性头脑的讲解,并实现课后习题。



学好英语从写好一个句子做起,本文将讲解英语句子的基本构造,留神文中提到的四个重要不雅点: trunk, shifter, linker and insert。


Trunk是大树的主干,也就是我们熟悉的主谓宾(SVO)构造。一个Trunk就是一个完全的简单句,比方I love you. 当两个Trunk连在一同的时间,罕见的有三种情况:


两个主干在一同: 简单句+简单句构成“复合句”(compound sentence), 旁边用逗号隔开, 并用连词连接。英文中有7个重要的连接词(其余的像however都是副词), 便于记忆我们称之为BOYFANS (but, or, yet, for, and, nor, so)

These leaves provide shade, but the tree also gives wonderful fruit.

?love her, but she loves him.

(T;T) (using sparingly)

两个句子也可能在不连接词的情况下也可能, 不过要用分号来隔开。

Poverty is a major problem today; it must be dealt with first.

I love her; she loves him.



The fruit has nutritional benefits and tastes good.

Everyone creates his own heaven or create his own hell.


Shifters can shift. In other words, they can move. They’re the part of a sentence that connects to a trunk, to add some important information. The trunk is solid, with its SVO, but the shifter can move, like leaves in the wind. The meaning doesn’t change.

为了给主干补充信息,我们可能利用shifters。Shifter平日是一个不完全的句子,它须要依附在完全的主干上。基本的构造是:SHIFTER, TRUNK (S, T) ,也就是我们常说的“复杂句” (complex sentence)。Shifter跟trunk连接,假如shifter中含有动词的话一般就要加逗号。

If people don’t stop wasting natural resources, there will be shortages. (白色部分为shifter,因为地位是在前,我们称之为front shifter, 其后要用逗号与trunk隔开)

There will be shortages if people don’t stop wasting natural resources. (当我们把shifter放在前面,他就成了end shifter, 此时逗号就不须要了)

Since the invention of guns, wars have increased.

Whenever there is unemployment, crime is likely to increase.

In English the order of words is important.

Yesterday the weather was rotten.

留神最后两个句子中In English, Yesterday之后并不加逗号。教师说 “When in doubt, leave it out” --?当不知

道该不该加逗号的时间就不要加,不然的话轻易使得句子读起来不连接。 很多时间标点利用取决于写作者的自行断定。Shifter必定是要依附trunk的,弗成能单独存在。假如我们直接写: If people don’t stop wasting natural resources. 这会是一个错误的句子, 被称为fragment,


A linker is a word or phrase that connects the ideas between one sentence and the next. (Link means connect.) Linkers usually go at the beginning of a sentence, so they start with a captial letter. 它的基本构造式LINKER, TRUNK (L,T)。留神必定要有逗号,尤其是用到however, therefore的时间。

Obviously, we are talking about bananas here.

As a result, he writes English well.


If you want to make your writing sound more sophisticated, start with a trunk (SVO). Then add more information to

the subject, the verb, or the object. We call this extra information an insert, because you insert it into the sentence.

TRUN INSERT (TI),?Insert为白色部分,留神标点

The tree picture above, a banana tree near a hotel parking lot, is growing in Haiti.

Television, which influences everyone, has advantages and disadvantages.

Emma Watson, a British actress, is my goddess.

以上这些内容是英语中的基本构造:simple sentence, compound sentence以及complex sentence。我们先从写好一个句子做起,然后可能写出更复杂一些的complex-compound sentence,比方:

Catch-22?is widely regarded as Joseph Heller's best novel, and because Heller served in World War II, which the novel satirizes, the zany but savage wit of the novel packs an extra punch.


(1) Captain Lewis allowed his men to make important decisions in a democratic manner.

(2) This democratic attitude fostered a spirit of togetherness and commitment on the part of Lewis's fellow explorers.

(1+2)?Allowing his men to make important decisions in a democratic manner,?Lewis fostered a spirit of togetherness and commitment among his fellow explorers.


(1) Lewis's fame and fortune was virtually guaranteed by his exploits.

(2) Lewis disappointed the entire world by inexplicably failing to publish his journals.

(1+2) His fame and fortune virtually guaranteed by his exploits,?Lewis disappointed the entire world by inexplicably failing to publish his journals.



Reading comprehension


To understand the marketing concept, it is only necessary to understand the difference between marketing and selling. Not too many years ago, most industries concentrated primarily on the efficient production of goods, and then relied on “persuasive salesmanship” to move as much of these goods as possible. Such production and selling focuses on the needs of the seller to produce goods and then convert them into money.

Marketing, on the other hand, focuses on the wants of consumers. It begins with first analyzing the preferences and demands of consumers and then producing goods that will satisfy them. This eye-on-the-consumer approach is known as the marketing concept, which simply means that instead of trying to sell whatever is easiest to produce or buy for resale, the makers and dealers first endeavor to find out what the consumer wants to buy and then go about making it available for purchase.

This concept does not imply that business is benevolent(慈悲的)or that consumer satisfaction is given priority over profit in a company. There are always two sides to every business transaction – the firm and the customer – and each must be satisfied before trade occurs. Successful merchants and producers, however, recognize that the surest route to profit is through understanding and catering to customers. A striking example of the importance of catering to the consumer presented itself in mid-1985, when Coca Cola changed the flavor of its drink. The non-acceptance of the new flavor by a significant portion of the public brought about a prompt restoration of the Classic Coke, which was then marketed alongside the new King Customer ruled!

1.The marketing concept discussed in the passage is, in essence, ____________.

A. the practice of turning goods into money

B. making goods available for purchase

C. the customer-centred approach

D. a form of persuasive salesmanshi


2. What was the main concern of industrialists before the marketing concept was widely accepted?

A. The needs of the market

B. The efficiency of production

C. The satisfaction of the user.

D. The preferences of the dealer.


3. According to the passage, “to move as much of these goods as possible” (Lines 3-4, Para.

I) means “_______________”.

A. to sell the largest possible amount of goods

B. to transport goods as efficiently as possible

C. to dispose of these goods in large quantities

D. to redesign these goods for large-scale production


4. What does the restoration of the Classic Coke best illustrate?

A. Traditional goods have a stronger appeal to the majority of people.

B. It takes time for a new product to be accepted by the public.

C. Consumers with conservative tastes are often difficult to please.

D. Products must be designed to suit the taste of the consumer.


5. In discussing the marketing concept, the author focuses on ___________.

A. its main characteristic

B. its social impact

C. its possible consequence

D. its theoretical basis



Acting is such an over-crowded profession that the only advice that should be given to a young person thinking of going on the stage is “Don't!”. But it is useless to try to discourage someone who feels that he must act, although the chances of his becoming famous are slim. The normal way to begin is to go to a drama school. Usually only students who show promise and talent are accepted, and the course lasts two years. Then the young actor or actress takes up work with a theatrical company, usually as an assistant stage manager. This means doing everything that there is to do in the theatre: painting scenery, publicity(宣传), taking care of the costumes, and even acting in very small parts. It is very hard work indeed, the hours are long and the salary is tiny.

Of course, some people have remarkable chances which lead to fame and success without this long and hard training. Connie Pratt, for example, was just an ordinary girl working in a bicycle factory. A film producer happened to catch sight of her one morning waiting at a bus stop, as he drove past in his car. He stopped and got out to speak to the girl. He asked if she would like to go to the film studio to do a test, and she thought he was joking. Then she got angry and said she would call the police. It took the producer twenty minutes to convince Connie that he was serious. The test was successful. And within a few weeks she was playing the leading part opposite one of the most famous actors of the day. But chances like this happen once in a blue moon.

1. From the very beginning, the author puts it clearly that acting is a profession______.

A. sought after by too many people

B. too difficult for young people

C. for ambitious people only

D. for young people only


2. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as part of an assistant stage manager's job?

A. Playing minor roles.

B. Taking care of the dress to be worn on the stage by an actor or actress.

C. Helping advertise plays.

D. Collecting tickets.


3. The film producer found Connie Pratt one morning when she was ______.

A. working in a bicycle factory

B. driving past him in her car

C. going to a film studio

D. waiting for a bus


4. A few weeks after the test, Connie Pratt found herself______ .

A. the most famous actress of the world

B. playing the leading female role in a play

C. as famous as the greatest actor of the world

D. no less famous than the leading actor of the day


5. The concluding sentence“chances like this happen once in a blue moon”means _______.

A. this is something which happens once in a while

B. this is a highly profitable chance

C. this is something highly possible

D. this is a very rare chance



1. 她的英语一直很优良。(excel in)

【答案】She has always excelled in the courses of English.

2.他的数据与现在探究的话题不相干。(relate to)

【答案】His statistics didn’t relate to the topic under discussion.

3.他们曾经参加了很多俱乐部的活动。(participate in)

【答案】They have participated in many club activities.

4.出门前,你必须穿上外套。(put on)

【答案】Before going out, you must put on your coat.

5.她决定依附本人谋生。(depend on)

【答案】She decided to depend on herself to earn a living.

6.出版社在多年的低利润后开张了。(close down)

【答案】The publishing house closed down after years of low profits.

7.他们都同意儿子提出来的打算。(in favor of)

【答案】They are both in favor of the plan put forward by their son.

8.这个行业往年面对休息力缺乏。(face a shortage)

【答案】 The industry is facing a shortage of labor this year.

9.你的年纪大小应当不会影响你能否掉掉落这份任务。(make a difference)

【答案】Your age shouldn’t make a difference to whether you get the job or not.

10.果汁会对孩子的牙齿形成侵害。(be harmful to)

【答案】Fruit juice can be harmful to children’s teeth.


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