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北语21秋《大学英语一》在线作业答卷四

21春《大学英语一》导学材料四(第四章)

各位同窗,现在我们开端第四阶段内容的进修,在这阶段的进修中,盼望大家能当真进修课件中的相干内容,在懂得的基本上,当真复习本阶段的练习题,进修中若有不明白或不懂得的处所,可能到课程论坛里发问交换。

一、本阶段进修内容概述

1. 章节介绍

In this chapter, you will read about the marketing of products. You will find out how titles are chosen for movies that are exported to other countries. The readings refer to America movies such as Along Came Polly, You’ve Got Mail, out of Africa as well as international movies such as Amores Perros and Tampopo. You will read about advertising throughout history, including the first package ads in China in the 13th century, Japanese handbills in the late 19th century, and the short internet movies created by companies today. Finally, you will get an overview of advertising in today’s world. These topics will prepare you to write a paragraph describing a commercial.

2. 本章目标

(1)言语知识:主谓分歧

(2)言语技能:

a. 浏览:做笔记、找例子、辨认词形、猜想生词意思

b. 翻译:意译

c. 写作:写一段话

(3) 批驳头脑:整合、评价、利用自有知识。

3. 章节安排

本章包含三篇文章,每篇的主题都切近生活,三篇文章按照由易到难停止安排。经由过程学

习三篇文章,将对“差别时光跟地点的市场营销”获得深刻认识,还可能经由过程“词汇/语法”、“翻译”、“写作”三个模块控制并坚固浏览、头脑跟写作技能。请及时实现每个模块中的练习题,当真听教师讲解,并结合本阶段的阶段导学跟领导文章,从而帮助达成进修目标的请求。

第一篇浏览《同样的电影,差其余名字》是对我们一般生活的实在写照,请带着成绩“Movies sometimes have different titles in different countries. Why?”

第二篇《告白的历史》是重点。生活中,告白无处不在:电视上,收音机中,大众汽车上,制作物的大屏幕。告白的性质也多种多样。追踪溯源,早在两千多年先人类就开端利用告白标记了。请带着成绩 “how is advertising in the past similar to advertising today”浏览全文,懂得告白历史的重要时辰。并特别留神文中所标注的重点词汇跟句型等语法知识。

第三篇《现代告白》留作自行浏览。浏览前,请细心听教师对浏览技能跟批驳性头脑的讲解,这种批驳性头脑能帮助我们更好的懂得主题。

二、重难点讲解

意译重要在原语与译语表现宏大文化差其余情况下得以利用。从跨文化言语交际跟文化交换的角度来看,意译夸大的是译语文化体系跟原语文化体系的绝对独破性。

意译(free translation)根据原文的粗心来翻译,不作逐字逐句的翻译(差别于“直译”)。平日在翻译句子或词组(或更大的意群)时利用较多,意译重要在原语与译语表现宏大文化差其余情况下得以利用。从跨文化言语交际跟文化交换的角度来看,意译夸大的是译语文化体系跟原语文化体系的绝对独破性。大量的实例阐明,意译的利用表现出差别言语平易近族在生态文化、言语文化、宗教文化、物质文化跟社会文化等诸多方面的差别性.意译更可能表现出本平易近族的言语特点。比方熟语、诗词、成语等的翻译,常常经由过程意译来达到“信、达、雅”,留神意译时要抓关键词!

1.Translation of Idiomatic Phrases

1) 塞翁掉马,焉知非福

假如直译的话,是如许的:

When the old man on the frontier lost his mare, who could have guessed it was a blessing in disguise?

很明显直译是在讲个故事,但是却无法表现成语要表达的塞翁掉马的意思。所以我们须要意译:

A loss may turn out to be gain.

在翻译一些外来事物的词汇时,或因为译者对所译的内容未能完全控制,或因为读者对这些新事物甚感陌生,或因为汉语中无同等的词汇,人们每每采取音译法将其译出。

但是,跟着时光的推移,人们对所译事物逐步熟悉起来。这时,人们就会发明有的音译同显得漫长隐晦,有的则会招致错误的遐想,惹起歧义或曲解。因此,不少外来语常常经历一个从最初的音译情势到意译情势的变更过程。久而久之,音译情势反而被人们淡忘了。

意译代替音译景象的存在,表现了意译有必定的优胜性。

(1)偶然意译比音译更轻易懂得。

有的音译词令读者隐晦,如: ultimatum(哀的美敦书),什么“书”呢?读者非得经由过程解释方能看明白。而其意译“最后通碟”却令人一目了然。camera音译为“开麦拉”(现在有些电影导演在批示拍摄时仍用此语),意译为“拍照机”或“拍照机”。cider音译为“西打”,意译为“苹果汁”。violin在朱自清散文(荷塘月色》中仍音译为“梵婀玲”,现在意译为“小提琴”。

(2)偶然意译比音译简洁明快。

有些词语的旧译(音译)用词漫长,读起来拗口,记起来又费劲,而其意译用字却简单多了,如:penicillin音译“盘尼西林”,意译“青霉素”。ambassador音译“奄巴萨托”,意译“大使”。在清朝, president音译“伯里玺寰宇”,现在却意译为“总统”。把上述音译跟意译稍加比较便会发明意译情势要言不烦,读音也上口多了。

(3)偶然意译比音译歧义少。

有的音译字本身不含义思,只是读音而已。但偶然却惹起必定的遐想,极易招致读者曲解。如:telephone旧译(音译)“德律风”,乍一看,像是景象术语,极像是一种风的名字。实在则不然。意译却很明白:德律风。又如:massage旧译“马杀鸡”,马是怎样杀鸡的呢?其字面意思确是不伦不类,无法懂得,而其意译“按摩”就一点也不隐晦了,再如:parliament旧译“巴力门”,它起首使人想到了该东西是一扇门,而其意译“国会”、“议会”,却不易产生曲解。

一些外来语汇的音译被其后的意译所代替,这是言语开展的一种趋向。但这并不克不及否定音译的优胜性。音译词的外来味很浓,不懂外语的人在涉外场合偶尔一用后果颇佳。有的音译词由来已久,多少乎无人不晓,如:sofa(沙发),humor(风趣), ballet(芭蕾舞),就更不必再发明一个译词了。

三、本阶段综合练习

Reading comprehension

Passage1

The word horsepower was first used two hundred years ago. James Watt had made the world's first widely used steam engine. He had no way of telling people exactly how powerful it was, for at that time there were no units for measuring power.

Watt decided to find out how much work one strong horse could do in one minute. He called that unit one horsepower. With this unit he could measure the work his steam engine could do.

He discovered that a horse could lift a 3300-pound weight 10 feet into the air in one minute. His engine could lift a 3300-pound weight 100 feet in one minute.

Because his engine did ten times as much work as the horse, Watt called it a ten horsepower engine.

1. The selection says that Watt made the first ( ).

A. engine

B. steam engine

C. widely used steam engine

D. useful engine

【答案】C

2. Watt wanted to find a way to ( ).

A. measure the work his engine could do.

B. tell people how powerful his engine was.

C. lift a 3300-pound weight.

D. Both A and B.

【答案】D

3. He made up a unit of measurement based on the strength of ( ).

A. a man

B. ten horses

C. his engine

D. a horse

【答案】D

4. One horsepower would equal the ( ).

A. work a horse could do in a minute.

B. weight a horse could lift.

C. work a horse could do in ten minutes.

D. weight of one horse.

【答案】A

5. ch of the following titles would be the best one for the passage? ( )

A. Watt's Engine

B. The Origin of the Term Horsepower

C. Units of Measurement

D. It Happened 200 Years Ago.

【答案】B

Passage2

The world's population continues to grow. There were about 4 billion of us on earth in the 20th century. The number had reached 6 billion by the end of the century and could reach 11 billion in another 75 years. Experts have long been concerned about such a growth. Where will we find food, water, jobs, houses, schools and health care for all these people?

A major new study shows that the situation may be changing. A large and rapid drop in the world's birth rate has taken place during the past 10 years. Families generally are smaller now than they were a few years ago. It is happening in both developing and industrial nations.

Researchers said they found a number of reasons for this. More men and women are waiting longer to get married and are using birth control devices and methods to prevent or delay pregnancy. More women are going to school or working at jobs away from home instead of having children. And more governments, especially in developing nations, now support family planning programs to reduce population growth.

China is one of the nations that has made great progress in reducing its population growth. China has already cut its rate of population growth by about one half since 1970. Each Chinese family is now urged to have no more than one child. And the hope is to reach a zero population growth with the total number of births equaling the total number of deaths by the year 2000.

Several nations in Europe already have fewer births than deaths. Experts said that these nations could face a serious shortage of workers in the future. And the persons who are working could face much higher taxes to help support the growing number of retired people.

1. In the 2075 comes, how many people will there be on earth? ( ).

A. 6 billion

B. 4 billion

C. 11 billion

D. 10 billion

【答案】C

2. ilies become smaller now in ( ).

A. developing and industrial nations

B. developing and western nations

C. China and European nations

D. China and developing nations

【答案】A

3. Which of the following is not mentioned in the passage as a reason for birth rate drop? ( )

A. More men and women marry late.

B. More women are going to work.

C. More governments support family planning.

D. More men and women decide to remain single.

【答案】D

4. na has cut its rate of population growth by ( )since 1970.

A. 50%

B. 75%

C. 150%

D. 1.5%

【答案】A

5. some European nations,the working people may face much higher taxes because ( ).

A. the nation needs more and more money

B. the retired people become more and more

C. the number of deaths becomes more and more

D. the working chances become more and more

【答案】B

Cloze 1

A young woman was driving through the ______ countryside. It was dark and raining. Suddenly she saw an old woman by the side of the road, ______ her hand out as if she wanted a lift. “I can’t ______her out in this weather,” the woman said to herself, so she stopped the car and opened the door.

“Do you want a lift?” she asked. The old woman nodded and climbed into the car. After a ______she said to the old woman, “Have you been waiting for a long time?” The old woman shook her head. “Curious,” thought the young woman. She ______ again. “Bad weather for the time of the year.” She said. The old woman nodded. No matter what the young woman said the hitchhiker(搭便车的人) gave no answer______ a nod of the head.

Then the young woman noticed the hitchhiker’s hands, which were large and hairy. Suddenly she ______ that the hitchhiker was actually a man! She stopped the car. “I can’t see out of the rear screen,” she said, “Would you mind ______it for me?” The hitchhiker nodded and opened the door. As soon as the hitchhiker was out of the car, the frightened young woman ______ .

When she got to the next village she pulled to a stop. She noticed that the hitchhiker had ______ his handbag behind. She picked it up and opened it. She gave a gasp(喘气); inside the bag was a gun!

1. A. lovely

B. lonely

C. noisy

D. crowded

【答案】B

2. A. holding

B. to hold

C. to be holding

D. to be held

【答案】A

3. A. permit

B. leave

C. allow

D. order

【答案】B

4. A. while

B. moment

C. time

D. period

【答案】A

5. A. told

B. did

C. made

D. tried

【答案】D

6. A. except for

B. apart from

C. other than

D. more than

【答案】A

7. A. recognized

B. realized

C. recovered

D. remembered

【答案】B

8. A. clear

B. cleared

C. to clear

D. clearing

【答案】D

9. A. raced off

B. ran away

C. fell down

D. moved on

【答案】A

10. A. lift

B. lost

C. laid

D. left

【答案】D

最后,再次提示同窗们,知识是学给本人的哦,大家必定要保持精良的进修习气,保持每天进修半小时以上。要多看课件多看书多思考,带着成绩去进修,务必当真复习练习题。如进修中有不明白或不懂得的处所,可能到课程论坛里发问交换。

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