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北交22春《大学英语》在线拓展资源3

【语法知识】主动语态

主动语态的构成:

主动语态由助动词be的各种时态情势加及物动词的早年分词构成。比方:

Bread, ham and cheese have been altered. ( 现在实现时 )

Genetically engineered foods are produced. ( 一般现在时)

A soya bean had been genetically engineered. ( 早年实现时)

1.含无神态动词的主动语态

含无神态动词的主动语态机构是:“神态动词+ be +早年分词”。比方:

These new processes should be controlled.

The fat content can be reduced to make it healthier.

The project had to be abandoned.

2. 一般早年时的主动语态

2.1 有三种情况,常用主动语态:

(1)夸大举措的承受者,而不夸大施动者;

(2)不必说起施动者;

(3)不晓得施动者。

2.2 构造:主语+be的早年式+动词早年分词

(1)He was arrested yesterday. 他昨天被捕了。

(2)The festival and games were held in Olympia. 庆典与比赛在奥林匹亚举办。

(3)The marathon was introduced in the modern Olympic Games in 1896. 马拉松于1896年成为了现代奥运会的比赛项目。

2.3 假如须要阐明施动者,用介词by引出;假如须要标明利用了什么方法跟手段,用介词with。

(1)The modern games were founded in 1896 by the Baron de Coubertin. 顾拜旦男爵于1896年创办了现代(奥林匹克)活动会。

(2)The ceremony was opened by the baron with a speech. 男爵的谈话发布了典礼开端。

(3)The man was attacked with a knife. 那人遭(持)刀(者)袭击。

2.4 主动语态的否定式是在be的早年式后加not;一般疑问句的构成是将be的早年式置于句首;特别疑问句则要利用特别疑问词,并且be的早年式要置于主语之前。

(1)The Olympic torch relay was not introduced until 1932. 奥林匹克火把转达接力直到1932年才引入。

(2)Were the Olympic Games founded in Olympia? 奥运会创办于奥林匹亚吗?

(3)When were the Olympic Games founded? 奥运会是何时创办的?

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